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– 8?
stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 4. post weld heat treatment 7. Posco
hydrotest 5. heat affected zone (HAZ) 8. Gadala
cold expanded 6. last pass heat sink welding (LPHSW) 9. FE and design optimization lab

Contreras, A., Albiter, A., Salazar, M., and P´erez, R., “Slow Strain Rate Corrosion and Fracture Characteristics of X-52 and X-70 Pipeline Steels,”
Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 407, pp. 45–52, 2005.
Manfredi, C., and Otegui J.L. “Failures by SCC in Buried Pipelines,” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol.9 , pp. 495–509, 2002.
Michaleris, P., “Residual Stress Distributions for Multipass Welds in Pressure Vessel and Piping Components,” Residual Stresses in Design
Fabrication, Assessment and Repair, ASME, PVPVol. 327, 1996.
Qingren, X., Yaorong, F., and Chunyong, H., “The Measurement and Control of Residual Stress in Spiral Sub-Merged arc Welded Pipe,” 4th International Pipeline Conference, Alberta, Canada, 2002.
Koch, F.O., Peek, A., and Elfinger, F.X., “Influence of Weld Residual Stresses on the Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Submerged arc Welded Pipes,” Residual Stresses Science and Technology, Vol.2, Garmisch-partenkirchen, FRG, 1986.
Cho, J. R., Lee, B. Y., Moonb, Y. H., and Van Tyne, C. J., “Investigation of Residual Stress and Post Weld Heat Treatment of Multi-Pass Welds by Finite Element Method and Experiments,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 155-156, pp. 1690–1695, 2004.
Sterjovski, Z., Dunne, D.P., and Ambrose, S., “Evaluation of Cross-Weld Properties of Quenched and Tempered Pressure Vessel Steel Before and After PWHT,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 81, pp. 465-470, 2004.

i”
Ravi, S., Balasubramaniana, V., and Nemat Nasser, S., “Influences of Post weld Heat Treatment on Fatigue Life Prediction of Strength Mis-Matched HSLA Steel Welds,” International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 27, pp. 547–553, 2005.
Hoesch, A., “Method for Making Steel Tubes or Pipes of Increased Acidic Gas Resistance,” United states patent, P.N. 4721536, 1988.
Engelhard, G., Habip, L. M., Pellkofer, D., Schmidt, J., and Weber, J., “Optimization of Residual Welding Stresses in Austenitic Steel Piping: Prooftesting and Numerical Simulation of Welding and Postwelding
Processes,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 198, pp. 141–151, 2000.
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Forouzan, M.R., and Choo, W.Y., personal conversation.

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