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Effect of educational intervention on the lifestyle of elderly people referred to clinical centers of Eslamshahr, Iran: application of health belief model

Khavoshi1 N (B.Sc) – Tol2 A (Ph.D) – Shojaeizade3 D (Ph.D) – Shamshiri4 A (Ph.D).

Abstract
Introduction: Health-promoting lifestyle helps elderly population to enjoy longer life, without burden of diseases or disabilities. This study was designed and performed to determine the effect of educational intervention on lifestyle of elderly population based on health belief model.
Method: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 80 elderly individual who visited the clinical centers of Eslamshahr, Iran in 2013-2014. In the pre-test stage, randomized sampling was carried out among the elderly who visited the clinical centers of Eslamshahr. The participants were divided into two interventions (39 persons) and control (41 persons) groups using block randomization method. The intervention group participated in educational courses designed based on Health Belief Model. Three months after the end of the intervention stage, post-test was given to both intervention and control groups. Data were entered into SPSS version 19. Then it was analyzed using repeated measures and Chi-square test.
Results: Three months after the intervention, mean perceived susceptibility between both groups was statistically significant. (P<0.001). Mean perceived severity was also significantly different (P=0.002). Mean of perceived barriers and perceived benefits was significantly different in both groups (P<0.001). Similarly, three months after the intervention, self-efficacy components and cues to action were significantly different (P<0.001). Prevention (P=0.03), exercise, and nutrition (P=0.03) showed significant differences. However, no significant differences were noted in stress and interpersonal relations between the two groups (P<0.005). Three months after intervention, mean lifestyle scores increased significantly in intervention group (P=0.03).
Conclusion: Education based on health belief model may affect healthy lifestyle promotion in the elderly population.

Key words: Elderly, lifestyle, educational intervention, health belief model

Received: 23 July 2014 Accepted: 3 January 2015

– MSc. Student, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
– Ph.D, MPH, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
– Corresponding author: Professor, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public
Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran e-mail: shojae5@yahoo.com
– Assistant Professor, Epidemiologist, Research Center for Caries Prevention, Institude of Dentistry,